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Jonathan R. Woodier and Andreas Zingerle

From Seoul to London, governments face an unprecedented rise in cybersecurity issues. South Korea has already declared a state of cyber emergency. The European Union has warned that its members are facing cyberattacks that are persistent, aggressive, increasingly dangerous and destructive, and undermining trust in Western democracies. Countries like the UK are increasing spending on their cyber defences, and looking to the private sector for new ideas. GCHQ, Britain’s surveillance agency, has launched a centre for cybersecurity start-ups near its headquarters in Cheltenham. The expansion marks a new approach from intelligence services, which have in the past refused to share information about cybercrime with private businesses. But it appears to be a losing battle. This chapter traces the dramatic escalation of aggressive cyberattacks by state and non-state actors, as new digital technologies enable the ‘Internet of Things’ and new levels of data capture and concludes that the international community seems to be floundering amidst discord and disagreement as to how to mount a coordinated response.