Marketing managers of new products have long been interested in understanding how consumer word-of-mouth (WOM) can influence the financial success of products. While there is an extensive body of recent WOM research, empirical findings about the relationship between WOM and marketing outcomes tend to vary substantially across WOM types, contexts, research methods, marketing outcomes, and brand traits. This chapter endeavors to provide a more cohesive understanding about the current state of WOM research with a strong emphasis on considering how current insights are particularly relevant during the new product launch stage. The authors summarize recent studies about the antecedents of WOM as well as research that investigates the consequences of consumer WOM. They conclude their review and discussion by introducing a research framework for brands, WOM, and new products, and explain how the framework could be used by marketing scholars to direct future research efforts into this arena.
Kathleen Connell, Andrew R. Brown and Sarah Baker
This chapter outlines a typology of creative career stages as evident in our explorations of the careers of professional singers. The career stages we propose are: (1) pre-career; (2) breaking in; (3) the peak period; (4) denouement; (5) new directions. By focusing on the subjective experiences of professional singers, the chapter highlights that creative careers are difficult to sustain and often fragile even when established. Data shows there can be very real implications for the well-being of the creative professional given the extent to which identity is linked to their creative profession. The chapter also highlights that career trajectories in professional singing, and in the performing arts more broadly, follow a distinctive arc because this labour force is creatively embodied. The chapter argues that it is only in considering the lifecycle of the creative performance career that the critical link between pre- and post-career stages can be made.
Stuart J Smyth, Sara McPhee-Knowles, Andrew Baker and Peter WB Phillips
Intellectual property issues span all research projects, both publicly and privately funded. As the depth and breadth of patent pools increases, freedom to operate (FTO) concerns are on the rise. Obtaining licences to intellectual property to initiate a research project is part of the challenge, but serious obstacles also arise with the commercialization of inventions. To conduct successful research projects, key pieces of intellectual property are required. In order to take research to commercialization without obstacles, it is necessary to determine freedom to operate in the early stages of a project.
As part of an FTO assessment for a Canadian research project, patent databases were searched in Canada, the United States, Australia, Japan, the European Union and World Intellectual Property Office (WIPO). Searches were completed using research relevant keywords provided by researchers from the project as well as a series of other related keywords. The searches yielded a list of over 400 patents containing the search word as a keyword in the patent. In addition to this, an intellectual property expert was contracted to assist the project with this research, revealing a further 400 patents. This article provides the description of a research methodology for patent landscape analysis that was developed and utilized for a Canadian research project.