Distinctive and ever closer, as it was proclaimed to become some two decades ago, the NATO–Ukrainian strategic partnership has undergone several rounds of transformation while successfully maintaining its rationale, that is, promoting security, enhancing defence and safeguarding regional stability. This chapter seeks to explore and explain in detail to what extent NATO–Ukrainian strategic goals and strategic roles convergence, trust, unique bonds, routinized diplomatic practices as well as advanced cooperation structures are responsible for the partnership’s success. Testing the book’s underlying five hypotheses, the case study on NATO–Ukrainian strategic partnership reveals the instances of past and determinants of future strategic cooperation willingness, just as it traces the prerequisites of its sustainability – both in the past and for the decades to come.
The Andean Community–China partnership is an example of relationship that, in spite of its great potential, falls short of delivering much and of actually enduring. This is a relationship that builds upon the relevance of China for economic development of the Andean sub-region, and the wider South American region’s relevance to China’s revisionist and power-politically competitive agendas – a relationship where development needs meet geo-economics. Subsequently, the Sino-Andean bilateralism is not strategic per se but rather strategically complementary. It is where and why the cooperation potential and will hardly transcend the structural and domestic constraints, not to mention the ‘significant others’. This chapter seeks to explore the path and form of cooperation between the Andean Community and China, as well as to explain the challenges to its development and sustainability.
The economic convergence agenda has tied the Andean Community and Brazil in their effort to economically integrate the grand region and project a strong regional identity as well as influence. The nature of CAN–Brazilian partnership finely reflects this dynamic: having started with the Fixed Tariff Preferences Agreement, the CAN–Brazilian relationship was later on enhanced by the Economic Complementation Agreement and consecutively upgraded to Brazil’s association with the Andean Community in 2005. Since then, some progress in extending this bilateral relationship beyond the economic convergence agenda has been recorded. However, the CAN–Brazilian bilateralism remains rather low-profile and largely overshadowed by all CAN member states’ associate membership in Mercosur, where Brazil plays the leading role. Moreover, the partnership is persistently challenged by regional-specifics-induced preference for old-style inter-state bilateralism.
Andriy Tyushka and Lucyna Czechowska
Strategic partnerships are the ‘new normal’ in International Relations. They emerged at the close of the twentieth century and are most likely here to stay for the decades to come. The acquis académiques on strategic partnerships is thriving in the business and economics literature, wherefrom it originates. In political science scholarship, a serious theoretical problematizing of the nature and meaning of the concept is, to a wider extent, lacking. This chapter problematizes strategic partnerships as an emerging political category and provides a thematic literature overview. It more closely addresses several domain-featured typologies of strategic partnerships as well as typologies of partnership-constitutive elements. By elucidating on the scholarly achievements and drawbacks from the so far three waves of studies on strategic partnerships, this chapter critically analyses the current situation in the field and develops a plea for a structural-functional analysis of strategic partnerships within the realist-constructivist epistemological framework.
Edited by Lucyna Czechowska, Andriy Tyushka, Agata Domachowska, Karolina Gawron-Tabor and Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska, Lucyna Czechowska, Agata Domachowska, Karolina Gawron-Tabor and Andriy Tyushka
Strategic partnership is surely not a new form of cooperation in the international arena; however, until today research has focused mainly on relations between states, rarely investigating other actors of international relations (IR). In light of this, the members of the research team Strategic Partnership Group (SPG) embarked on an analysis of strategic partnerships between states and international organizations – the main types of actors in the contemporary international system. To this aim, an ideal model of strategic partnership has been devised, verified and validated. The turn of the century brought a new era in international relations. The collapse of the post-war world order and the end of the Cold War combined with ongoing globalization processes gave rise to the substantial expansion of a network of interdependencies in global politics. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the collapse of the bipolar bloc system, states regained the sovereign capability of defining and defending strategic goals, i.e. the autonomous choice of partners and allies. One of multiple structural and material effects of globalization on contemporary international relations was considerable broadening of the selection of potential allies and partners. Nowadays it encompasses not only states but also a variety of international organizations and corporations. Considering their competence to conclude legally binding agreements and take autonomous actions, it is no accident that intergovernmental and supranational organizations have become oft-chosen partners. Amid uncertainty, economic crisis and multicausal networks of dependencies, international politics offers as many cooperation possibilities as limitations, and thus poses a challenge to actions of both state and non-state international players. Foreign policy needed new tools to mitigate the effects of the changing international environment, increasing risk and intensifying conflicts of interests, and the answer was strategic partnerships.
Andriy Tyushka, Lucyna Czechowska, Agata Domachowska, Karolina Gawron-Tabor and Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
Drawing on the critical literature review from the previous chapter, this chapter sketches the minefield of theorizing an inescapable phenomenon – strategic partnerships in world politics and IR theory. It first outlines the theory-building rationale and strategy, epistemological considerations and ontological standing; then it justifies why building a ‘heuristic model’ was chosen as a way of studying the phenomenon. The chapter develops a realist-constructivist approach to the study of strategic partnerships, according to which strategic partnerships can provide states and non-state actors with a form of foreign policy assertiveness, special bilateral relations and alignment, as well as a form of structured international engagement. The theoretical and methodological discussions within this chapter are completed by five main hypotheses, a qualitatively-driven mixed-method methodological framework, including the description of main variables, their operationalization and measurement methods, data collection and research sampling.
Lucyna Czechowska, Agata Domachowska, Karolina Gawron-Tabor, Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska and Andriy Tyushka
This chapter advances a testable analytical model of strategic partnerships in IR. The developed regression model of strategic partnerships between states and international organizations is built around a set of two dependent variables (cooperation willingness; cooperation sustainability), four independent variables (strategic goals convergence; strategic roles convergence; unique bonds; regularized bilateral strategic interactionism) as well as a single intervening variable (trust). The model-underlying theory suggests that strategic partnerships are a product of the intertwined cooperation willingness and cooperation sustainability factors, with trust intervening as a salient factor in the process of cooperation. This means that the increase in cooperation willingness and cooperation sustainability will result in the increase of strategic partnership substantiality. This chapter theoretically contextualizes, conceptualizes and operationalizes the main seven variables, and develops a set of applicable qualitative and quantitative indicators and measures.
Andriy Tyushka, Agata Domachowska, Lucyna Czechowska, Karolina Gawron-Tabor and Joanna Piechowiak-Lamparska
The concluding chapter contains comparative findings from qualitative case studies of the EU, NATO, ASEAN and the Andean Community’s strategic partnerships with a sample of great, major and minor regional powers. It also contains the findings of the statistical testing (multiple multivariate linear regression analysis) of the strategic partnerships model, including the propositions for a model refinement following the abduction strategy. Strategic goals convergence was confirmed to be a good predictor of cooperation willingness among partners. Trust was confirmed to be a good predictor of cooperation sustainability. Strategic roles convergence, unique bonds and regularized bilateral interactionism have not shown statistically significant results. A refined model of strategic partnerships appears to be more robust, with strategic goals convergence correlating well with trust, which both predict well cooperation willingness – and in turn are good predictors of cooperation sustainability.