The assumption that corporate entrepreneurship activities can be internally oriented (‘intrapreneurship’) or externally oriented (‘exopreneurship’) is widely accepted. However, most of the existing empirical research makes use of the theoretical construct of entrepreneurial orientation as a holistic measure of corporate entrepreneurship, without any distinction on the nature of the activities carried out. The focus of this study is shifted on the internal and external nature of actions undertaken to trigger the entrepreneurial orientation. Furthermore, it analyses if and how the balance between internal and external activities might vary under certain environmental conditions. The aim of the study is reached by using survey data from 224 Italian medium-sized firms operating in manufacturing industries. Implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Angelo Riviezzo and Antonella Garofano
The main aim of this study is to simultaneously investigate the impact of entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation and environmental conditions on international performance of SMEs. Moreover, the moderating role of domestic environment is examined, with the objective of gaining a greater understanding of whether certain environmental conditions may increase the significance of different strategic orientations. To this aim, we use survey data from 186 Italian SMEs operating in traditional manufacturing industries. Our results show that both entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation positively influence international performance of SMEs, while the relationship between domestic environment hostility and dynamism and international performance is negative. Furthermore, while the moderating influence of environmental characteristics on the relationship between EO and international performance is positive, the moderating influence of environmental characteristics on the relationship between MO and international performance is negative. Based on these results, domestic environment can be viewed as a contextual variable that is really critical in understanding the role of strategic and firm-level dimensions.
Angelo Riviezzo, Maria Rosaria Napolitano and Antonella Garofano
This study aims to discuss the actual commitment of Italian universities towards their ‘third mission’ by applying Critical Discourse Analysis. We focused on the texts published by the 84 Italian universities on their websites. First, we performed a lexical-statistical study of the texts with the main aim of observing the adopted terminology (vocabulary). Then we employed multidimensional statistic techniques in order to study the discursive practices and reconstruct the major models of sense behavior. Alongside this, we carried out an exploratory study of the social context to link the texts and the discursive practices to the background conditions. Our results seem to suggest that the new mission of the university does not yet represent a central theme in the discourse, neither in the social context nor within the universities. Moreover, there is some caution in using a rhetoric that celebrates the third mission and there is no evidence of a deliberated appropriation of a commercial vocabulary, as it happened in different social contexts. Key words: academic entrepreneurship; university mission; critical discourse analysis