Inclusion and innovation in healthcare are imperative on moral, pragmatic, and economic grounds. Despite extensive research in many fields of social and health sciences on both inclusion and innovation, fundamental questions remain: How can health systems deliver better outcomes – and especially prevention – at lower costs? What constitutes inclusiveness in healthcare? How can digitization and other breakthrough technologies advance health? This chapter offers a theoretical framework for addressing these questions, and then sets out a research agenda for scholars of organization and management interested in contributing solutions to the most pressing and profound healthcare problems of our time.