Migration is an important phenomenon at both the macro and the micro levels. It shapes national economies as well as individual biographies across Europe, while freedom of movement and residence have been a cornerstone of the EU project from the very beginning. When Europeans move from one place to another, they often travel rather short distances, and the move is often temporary. For many, migration is an episode in early adulthood. This chapter examines the stories of three such temporary migrants and the networks involved in their migration. We utilize a life-course approach to discuss their journey out, as well as their return to the country of origin. What are the subjective consequences of such migration experiences in the specific context of European youth unemployment? Both negative and positive experiences add up and contribute to a fuller picture of the increasingly transnational nature of the lives of young Europeans.
Veneta Krasteva, Ann McDonnell and Ida Tolgensbakk
Margherita Bussi, Mi Ah Schoyen, Janikke Solstad Vedeler, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Ann McDonnell and Christine Lewis
This chapter focuses on the mechanisms underlying social resilience, concentrating on individuals who successfully coped with precarious employment when young. The capability approach and the concept of social resilience are used jointly. The first allows us to identify factors of conversion that helped transform (im)material resources into valuable outcomes. The second qualifies the individual negotiation process (coping, adaptive, transformative). We analysed life-course interviews with individuals living in Norway and the United Kingdom – two countries with distinctive youth transition regimes _ to capture interactions between institutional structure and individual agency. Both countries present examples of adaptive and transformative resilience, but the factors of conversion are different. Education coupled with institutional support from public employment services were relevant conversion factors for young Norwegians. In the United Kingdom, by contrast, the voluntary sector, informal networks and education were more likely to fill the gap of a non-punitive support system.
Sara Ayllón, Margherita Bussi, Jacqueline O’Reilly, Mi Ah Schoyen, Ida Tolgensbakk and Ann McDonnell
This chapter asks whether young people change their behaviour and attitudes towards drug use in times of economic crisis and, if so, how. We address this question looking at the links between early job insecurity and drug consumption through quantitative and qualitative data. What role might drugs have in creating and coping with unstable personal situations and ‘unconventional’ transitions into adult life? We find that increased unemployment is associated with a rise in the consumption of certain drugs, and we explore the bounded agency of young people’s subjective experiences in such situations.