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Mary E Desmond and Ann Powers

Abstract

This chapter provides a brief introduction of the importance of the marine environment and the major causes of its degradation in the Wider Caribbean Region. To address these issues, the SPAW Protocol was enacted, providing a unique legal framework with its ecosystem-wide approach to conservation. Obstacles to SPAW’s implementation are summarized, primarily lack of capacity in regard to implementation and enforcement, especially for the developing states in the region.

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Mary E Desmond and Ann Powers

Abstract

This chapter provides the background against which the diverse states and territories of the Wider Caribbean Region developed their Regional Seas Programme, leading to the adoption of the Cartagena Convention and its three Protocols. Considered one of the most comprehensive of the UNEP’s Regional Seas Programmes, the Cartagena Convention addresses all sources of marine and coastal pollution, and provides for specific management and enforcement tools. Although the Convention and its Protocols offer an excellent framework for the protection of the marine environment, this will only be achieved with additional support from the international community.

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Mary E Desmond and Ann Powers

Abstract

This chapter provides an overview of the serious threat oil pollution poses to the Caribbean marine environment, which led to the adoption of the Protocol to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment Concerning Co-Operation in Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region (OSP). It discusses the requirements and obligations of member States under the Protocol, and its relationship to other international legal instruments. Although the region faces challenges in implementing the OSP’s provisions, the Protocol provides a cooperative framework within which member States collectively address the problem, and represents a solid step forward in the prevention and mitigation of oil-spill incidents.

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Mary E Desmond and Ann Powers

Abstract

The Protocol to the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean Region Concerning Land-Based Sources of Marine Pollution is considered the most forward-thinking and aggressive protocol of the UNEP Regional Seas Programmes. In addition to requiring cooperation among Party States and public participation, it prescribes detailed pollution control and management measures with which Parties must comply under specific time frames. The Protocol offers comprehensive solutions to arguably the most serious threat to the Caribbean marine environment; however, lack of financial and human resources inhibit ratification and implementation.

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Ann Powers and Patrick Carroll