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Anna Bos-Nehles and Mieke Audenaert

This chapter focuses on the use of leader-member exchange (LMX) theory in HRM research. Considering the relationship between managers and employees, LMX theory can explain differences between how people are managed at work. By distinguishing between high- and low-quality LMX exchanges, and economic and social HRM exchanges, HRM scholars can understand why some employees perceive more or less HRM practices and express higher or lower levels of job satisfaction, commitment or performance. This chapter presents ways in which HRM and LMX combine to affect employees, and ends with the development of a research agenda for the use of LMX theory in HRM research.

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Julia Brandl, Ina Ehnert and Anna Bos-Nehles

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Julia Brandl, Anna Bos-Nehles and Ina Aust

This chapter presents a state-of the art review of research on cross-national variation in organising human resource management (HRM) work based on open systems theorising of organisations. The authors suggest that practical efforts for organising HRM are based on three alternative models (classic, neo-classic, and modern), and identify the major theoretical traditions that have guided research in this field. Based on the inclusion of empirical studies, the chapter includes a new section on research in the tradition of new institutional theory as well as key issues and future research directions.

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Anna Bos-Nehles, Jordi Trullen and Mireia Valverde

The concept of HRM system strength remains central to the HRM process perspective. Stronger systems are those that send unambiguous messages and clear signals as to the values and priorities of the organization. While a key aspect of any process approach is delivery or enactment of HRM, the HRM system strength literature has remained relatively vague about how to implement HRM policies and practices in ways conducive to stronger HRM systems. By building on a multi-actor process view of HRM implementation, this chapter addresses how different organizational actors (top management, HR professionals, and line managers) may do so. At the end of the chapter, we also reflect on some of the ways in which a less linear and more dynamic view of HRM implementation may contribute to current debates on HRM system strength and its adaptability to different contexts.