Eastern Poland is among areas characterised by weaker potential. The smart specialisation concept offers additional opportunities for innovation development to Eastern Poland, alternately assuming forms of an creative or imitative innovation model. The creative innovation model reminds investment or catching-up strategies of technological advancement, described in economics literature, which are applied by many emerging economies, including South Korea, China, Brazil and India, with different degrees of success. The imitative innovation model is characterised by a relatively high risk, particularly in the conditions of a relatively low development potential and absence of support to the local industrial base, which is necessary for foreign investments. In the present situation, the imitative innovation model does not guarantee creation of sustainable mechanisms that would reduce the development distance relatively fast. That is why fast implementation of the creative innovation model is a more recommended model for Eastern Poland. The chapter is devoted to the conditions necessary for effective implementation of this innovation model in Eastern Poland.