The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CAMLR Convention) has established world benchmarks for the conduct and management of fisheries. It is often used as an exemplar of fisheries ‘best practice’. The Convention is part of the Antarctic Treaty System, and is therefore not established under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, nor is it part of the United Nations treaty system. This chapter explores the origins of the CAMLR Convention as direct consequence of the deliberations of the Antarctic Treaty Parties. The Convention stands apart from agreements that establish Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) in that its purpose is conservation, not the sustainable harvesting of fish. We conclude that a purposive, objective, and plain reading of the Convention, a detailed understanding of its genesis, and the practice of CCAMLR itself, all demonstrate that the Convention is a conservation instrument which, inter alia, provides for the regulation of fisheries.