Martin Ewi and Anton Du Plessis
Amelia Broodryk and Anton du Plessis
Africa has a complicated relationship with United Nations (UN) sanctions, rooted in historical as well as current experiences. African perceptions of sanctions have been shaped not only by how and when sanctions are imposed but also by whom. Perceptions have also been formed by frustration associated with a lack of reform of global bodies tasked with ensuring international peace and security, including the United Nations Security Council. Although there is widespread agreement that sanctions are often the only workable response to complex international security threats, they are by no means seen as a politically-neutral tool. Despite the continent’s vast experience with both UN and regional sanctions regimes, very little analysis has been done that accurately captures African views. The aim of this chapter is to provide an account of Africa’s experience with UN sanctions. The continent provides valuable lessons for developing and implementing sanctions regimes in the future. The degree to which African states have implemented sanctions, and been willing to impose sanctions on other African states, shows the continent is committed to preserving international peace and security. However, challenges remain – ranging from a lack of capacity to implement sanctions effectively, to misunderstandings about which activities constitute sanctions violations. Keywords Africa, sanctions, United Nations, African Union, peace, security
Martin Ewi and Anton Du Plessis
Continental action on terrorism in Africa has been slow, bifurcated and lacking rigidity. As continental institutions evolved from the Organization of African Unity (OAU) to the African Union (AU), counter-terrorism actions in Africa have also evolved. The previous edition of this chapter has discussed the transition in continental responses and measures adopted by the OAU and the AU between 1992 and 2012, which demonstrated the policy shift from non-action to non-indifference. During this period, the OAU/AU took some important initiatives including the adoption of a normative framework that integrated the Pan-African body into the global counter-terrorism architecture. This edition of the chapter examines another policy shift, from the ad hoc counter-terrorism measures taken by the African Union during the period of non-indifference (2002–2010), to the emergence of an African Union counter-terrorism culture (2011–present) that go beyond mere indifference. During this period, counter-terrorism seems to have gained increased moral force and legality. The period has been marked by the granting of jurisdiction over terrorist offences to the African Court of Justice and Human and People’s Rights under the Malabo Protocol, adopted in 2014 – even if the Court is yet to be ratified by African states. Another emerging trend in AU’s counter-terrorism culture has been the routine condemnation of terrorist and violent extremist attacks in Africa and the world at large, as well as the AU’s increased concern at terrorism and its solidarity with countries heavily affected by the threat. The chapter also interrogates the AU’s responses to contemporary terrorist threats such as the one posed by foreign terrorist fighters and the expansion of ISIS in the continent. It discusses some of the inherent challenges faced by the Union in its new increased role and the future direction of counter-terrorism in Africa.