This chapter explains how the fight against mafias has developed in Italy and abroad. It argues that Italy’s anti-mafia policies are possibly the most incisive in the world, constituting an autonomous policy sector. The study traces the evolution of its policies in the post-war period, demonstrating how a specialised policy community - which includes grassroots organisations - has developed in Italy since the 1990s and has pushed for proactive elaboration and enlargement of legislation, producing some important successes. The second section examines the fight against mafia associations at the European Union level and the influence that the Italian experience has had on debates and developments concerning European Union anti-mafia policy. Finally, it points to how United States policies to combat organised crime have inspired approaches internationally.