Arnold B. Bakker
Arnold B. Bakker
Despoina Xanthopoulou and Arnold B. Bakker
In this chapter, we review recent theorizing and empirical studies on work engagement in order to address two central issues. The first is to detect the meaning, as well as the predictors and outcomes of work engagement at the collective, individual (stable), and situational (within-person variable) levels of analysis. The second is to unravel the cross-level psychological processes and boundary conditions that explain how factors from different analytical levels interrelate in determining work engagement and its outcomes. Based on our reviews of these literatures, we find some preliminary support for a multi-level nomological network of relationships involving engagement as well as identify gaps in our understanding of the multilevel nature of work engagement that may be addressed by future studies.
Arnold B. Bakker and Jari J. Hakanen
Marjan J. Gorgievski and Arnold B. Bakker
Wilmar B. Schaufeli, Toon W. Taris and Arnold B. Bakker
Keri A. Pekaar, Arnold B. Bakker, Dimitri van der Linden and Marise Ph. Born
This chapter discusses how individuals can use emotional intelligence (EI) to deal with daily emotions at work. The authors link EI to the emotional labor literature, and explain why and how it may benefit employee well-being and job performance. They also discuss potential downsides of EI in work settings. In addition, they introduce a new approach that may be useful when studying the role of EI in daily working life: the enacted approach to EI. They argue that it is important to distinguish how employees deal with their own emotions from how they deal with the emotions of others and propose a new instrument that can be used to measure self- and other-focused EI.