In chapter 9, William Jankowiak and B Shurentana provide an overview of themes and trends in the study of ethnicity in urban China. First, because minority research has been primarily conducted among rural ethnic groups, there are few studies of urban ethnic populations. To date, most research has focused on the relationship between cultural assumptions and how state policies have shaped who is and who is not a minority. With a few notable exceptions, it was not until the twentieth-first century that some of China’s 55 official urban minorities’ (e.g., Hui, Uyghur, Mongol, Tibetan, Sebei, Halka) family life were studied. Jankowiak and Shurentana summarize research on China’s urban ethnicity along with an ethnographic overview of Mongolian life in Hohhot, capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR), as a way to illustrate how the urbanization process has reconfigured what it means to be a member of an ethnic minority group in Chinese society.