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Beatriz Huarte Melgar

Environmental targets for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) are particularly relevant in the maritime sector because about 90 per cent of world trade is transported by sea, with maritime transport responsible for 2.5 per cent of total GHG emissions worldwide. In this regard, the European Union (EU), based on the IMO conventions, has developed a strategy, implemented since 2013, involving measures affecting the energy market to reduce GHG emissions within the maritime sector. It has also implemented an integrated maritime policy which covers areas as diverse as fishing, shipping and ports, marine environment, etc., and has promoted the use of the LNG for ships. Accordingly, this chapter aims at explaining how the EU implements energy measures to reduce GHG emissions from the shipping sector.

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Beatriz Huarte Melgar

Transfer of technology is an important instrument for international energy cooperation as well as energy trade and investments. Besides commercial transfer of technology, there is a vast range of non-commercial transfer of technology within the framework of international cooperation agreements related, inter alia, to infrastructure projects, research, transport, etc., with consequences in different areas, such as the environmental field or concerning intellectual property rights. In this regard, the cross-border energy technology cooperation brings economic growth for the involved zone. Accordingly, this chapter makes a commentary on this legal provision to understand its raison d’être and relevance in the energy sector.

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Beatriz Huarte Melgar

Access to capital (ECT Art 9) is, like ECT Article 8, a significant instrument for international energy cooperation as well as energy trade and investments. This legal provision is fundamental to finance trade in energy materials and products and, therefore, to promote the investments of foreign enterprises and their operations. However, the drafting of this precept has been carried out so as to find a compromise among the ECT Contracting Parties; accordingly, it can be considered as a ‘best efforts’ clause. In this regard, this chapter makes a commentary on ECT Article 9 to understand its raison d’être and relevance for the access to capital markets in the energy sector.