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Ben R. Martin

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Ben R. Martin

Academic researchers operate in an increasingly competitive environment. They compete for research funds (with success rates for grant applications now often 20 per cent or lower), tenure and promotion. Their institutions compete in research assessment exercises or in international university rankings. Academics are subject to ever more intrusive forms of evaluation, often heavily dependent on performance indicators linked to success in publishing – in particular, numbers of publications, numbers of citations, numbers of highly cited papers or articles in top journals (frequently linked with journal impact factors) and your personal h-index.

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Ben R. Martin

The field of science policy and innovation studies (SPIS) is now over half a century old. Although relatively well established, it is confronted with various major challenges, as the author has set out in previous papers. In this chapter, the author examines what factors might be underlying those challenges. The aim is to understand those factors so that we are better positioned to tackle and eventually overcome these challenges to the field of SPIS.

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Sven Hemlin, Carl Martin Allwood and Ben R. Martin

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Jan Fagerberg, Morten Fosaas, Martin Bell and Ben R. Martin

This paper focuses on Christopher Freeman's contributions to the field of innovation studies. First, we consider his role as the creator of various organisational and intellectual frameworks crucial for the field's development, including the main research activities he initiated. Next, we examine the publications by Freeman that these activities led to.

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Ben R. Matin, Carl Martin Allwood and Sven Hemlin

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Jan Fagerberg, Staffan Laestadius and Ben R. Martin

Europe is confronted by an intimidating triple challenge—economic stagnation, climate change and a governance crisis. What is required is a fundamental transformation of the economy to a new "green" trajectory based on rapidly diminishing emission of greenhouse gases, the authors contend. Much greater emphasis on innovation in all its forms (not just technological) is an answer. Following this path would mean turning Europe into a veritable laboratory for sustainable growth, environmentally as well as socially.