Massimo Filippini and Benedetto Lepori
Marco Seeber and Benedetto Lepori
Benedetto Lepori and Ben Jongbloed
This chapter discusses the multiple objectives and dilemmas surrounding the resource allocation decisions in higher education taken by policy-makers and public authorities at the national level. Resourcing decisions, in particular the implementation of new policy instruments, are very much driven by particular assumptions and normative points of view, bringing in issues of political choice and resolving competing demands. The authors present a critical look at the politics of funding higher education, arguing that funding reforms inspired by policy rationales such as new public management (NPM) are always implemented in higher education systems that are characterized by a multitude of competing logics, traditions and reputations. In addition, the mixed public_private character of higher education further complicates the effects of funding decisions. All of this is making simple market-oriented solutions problematic, pointing at the limitations of government intervention and funding policies and calling for a more pragmatic approach to resource allocation in higher education.
Benedetto Lepori and Emanuela Reale
This chapter develops a framework to analyse Research Funding Organizations (RFOs), broadly defined as organizations distributing public project funding for research, and their functions within science policy by leveraging the political sciences literature on New Public Management and agencification. We discuss the ongoing process of differentiation and repositioning of RFOs linked to transformations in science policy and more generally in public policy through three analytical lenses, namely the relationships with the state (the antinomy between autonomy and control), the distribution of tasks (vertical vs horizontal specialization) and the agencies’ culture and structure (the emergence of organizational forms). We illustrate these processes through examples from six European countries. We conclude that a general repositioning of RFOs as delegated agencies executing state tasks is observed, yet with a significant level of autonomy, and that only two organizational forms of RFOs are widespread, namely research councils and innovation agencies.
Andrea Bonaccorsi, Cinzia Daraio and Benedetto Lepori
Benedetto Lepori, Emanuela Reale and Stig Slipersaeter
Ivar Bleiklie, Gigliola Mathisen Nyhagen, Jürgen Enders and Benedetto Lepori
The aim of the chapter is to analyse the relationship between changing conceptions of knowledge, higher education reform policies and changing university organization in Europe. Empirically and conceptually we draw on comparative research on higher education reforms and their impact on academic systems and institutions the last decades, comprising European data from France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and UK. The chapter is divided into three main sections. The first part discusses how the concept of knowledge has changed in the last couple of decades. In the second part the idea of a changing concept of knowledge is put into a political and social context of rapid growth of higher education and how it relates to major developments in society at large, defined by the emerging knowledge economy and knowledge society. The last and third part analyses the organizational implications for modern university institutions. The chapter questions the idea that the increasing importance of knowledge means that the concept of knowledge is fundamentally changed and that academics have lost power or influence over decisions made by academic institutions. Instead it argues that the concept of knowledge is extended and that while academics have lost influence in some traditional decision arenas, they have gained increasing influence in new arenas that have emerged in recent decades.