In chapter 5, Benno Ryan Weiner offers an historical overview of Tibet’s position within China and China’s position within Tibet, stressing the ways in which both the CCP and advocates for Tibetan independence employ ‘history’ as a tool to make claims about Tibet’s current international position. Weiner then examines the Tibetan Plateau’s incorporation into the PRC during the Maoist period (1949–1976), focusing on the CCP’s parallel but incomplete efforts to integrate Tibetans into the multinational, socialist Chinese nation. Finally, he investigates conditions in Tibetan regions during the post-1978 era. Over the last four decades the ideological demands and policy prescriptions of state socialism have largely been jettisoned. However, the CCP’s shift to more developmental approaches of state building and national integration has not been very successful in convincing many Tibetans that they have an equal stake in the Han-dominated, multi-nationality Chinese nation-state.