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Bernard Hoekman

The past few decades have witnessed a growth in the importance of services in the economy, yet until the 1980s, scholarly literature on the expanding role of trade in services in the world economy remained scarce. This timely research review by a leading analyst in the field brings together seminal works on the WTO and trade in services published in the last twenty-five years. Areas covered in this important review include the determinants and patterns of trade in services, services in regional integration agreements and the GATS.
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Bernard Hoekman

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Bernard Hoekman

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Bernard Hoekman

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Bernard Hoekman and Aaditya Mattoo

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Bernard M. Hoekman and Petros C. Mavroidis

Services are regulated for a variety of reasons. Regulation is typically influenced by political economy forces and may thus at times reflect protectionist motivations. Similar considerations arise for goods, but the potential for protectionist capture may be greater in services as many are self-regulated by domestic industry. The GATT embodies specific disciplines on product regulation in a separate agreement on technical barriers to trade (TBT) encouraging the use of international standards and norms that only impact on trade to the extent necessary to achieve the regulatory objective. The GATS does not include similar disciplines. We discuss reasons for this discrepancy and assess whether consideration should be given to seeking to adopt TBT-type disciplines that apply to trade in goods.