Unprecedented growth and circulation of Chinese international students cannot be fully understood unless the roles of host societies including diaspora Chinese communities are taken into account. This chapter draws attention to a phenomenon of local engagement, a process of interconnections and interactions between Chinese students and local communities, leading to a co-development of both Chinese students and diaspora Chinese communities in host countries. The links and impacts of Chinese student mobility in local communities can be seen from the landscape change of Chinese communities in England since the twenty-first century. Accordingly, this chapter aims to address two questions: Why is local engagement important for Chinese student development in destinations? What are the impacts on the development and transformation of diaspora Chinese communities? Empirical evidence are based upon the combination of official data sources (UK Census and higher education statistics) analysis and a questionnaire survey conducted on Nottingham’s Chinese community. Policy implications for global talent training and co-development with diaspora Chinese communities are discussed.
You-hua Liu, Min Xu and Bin-wu Qin
Recently, parties have begun to implement patents separately to avoid legal liability in China. Multi-party infringing behaviours are more complicated to legally characterize than single-party patent infringement. Before the recently proposed legislative reform, the Patent Law of China did not clearly define indirect infringement. Chinese courts usually apply the joint torts rules to deal with those cases. However, by mixing the rule of joint injurious act with the rule of indirect patent infringement, the courts tend to confuse the two. Moreover, the newly drafted Revision of Patent Law, though it proposes adopting the indirect infringement concept, still borrows the joint torts rules to allocate liabilities. In these circumstances, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between joint torts and indirect infringement, and thus to clarify the rules for multi-party patent infringement.