Liisa Häikiö and Bjørn Hvinden
Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden
Many observers have considered the Nordic countries as a group of countries with shared priorities for redistribution-oriented provisions, and recently, a group providing similar responses to supranational and domestic expectations to adopt new and statutory social regulation instruments to ensure non-discrimination in the labour market. Yet, policy reforms since the late 1990s and early 2000s provide the authors in this volume with reasons to re-examine whether this is still the case and how the Nordic countries perform in facilitating the transition to the labour market for young adults. This chapter argues for seeing the Nordic countries as a case of both theoretical and political interest in the wider European context. The chapter presents the analytic framework for the volume as a whole and the main compositional factors relevant to examining old and new social risks and intersectionality for young adults in transition from education to employment.
Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden
This final chapter draws together the ways in which the contributions in the book show a considerable diversity among the Nordic countries. First, the authors find variation in how the Nordic countries have designed their education and other redistributive social protection policies. Second, they see diversity in the effective role of social regulation provisions in relation to minority ethnic youth or disabled youth. Third, they find variety in the changing relationship between regulation and redistribution in policy efforts with regard to these groups. Fourth and finally, they see mixed evidence on the impact of such efforts in improving the employment prospects of members of the groups. The chapter concludes with a critical discussion of current proposals for such advances and an outline of some alternative approaches to making progress in this area.
Comparative Perspectives on Labour Market Policies
Edited by Rune Halvorsen and Bjørn Hvinden
Mi Ah Schoyen and Bjørn Hvinden
This chapter addresses the implications of climate change for welfare institutions in Europe. We argue that the linkages between social policy and climate change have consequences for what it means to make welfare states sustainable. Against this background, the chapter highlights four types of issues or questions that the research agenda on climate change and the welfare state needs to address: questions or issues of justice and distribution related to the unequal human, social and territorial impacts of climate change; the social consequences of climate policy; welfare state adaptations necessary to meet the direct and indirect consequences of climate change; and political conditions conducive to the reconciliation of ecological and social objectives in advanced and mature welfare states, including a shift towards forms of production, transport and consumption that are less harmful for the climate In conclusion, the chapter offers some reflections on what it will take to make a lasting move towards low-carbon societies in Europe and suggests that welfare state institutions may have a facilitating role in this process. Relatedly, we stress the need for a higher degree of cross-fertilization between scholarship on climate and energy policy and social policy.