The global community has committed to protecting the human rights of children through adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and other instruments. Despite these safeguards, children worldwide suffer violence and profound rights violations at epidemic proportions. International refugee law, in theory, protects children facing this type of persecution. However, in practice, children—especially children alone—face barriers to obtaining the protection they deserve in receiving countries. This chapter examines through case studies how the refugee definition properly applies in children’s asylum cases, how barriers to achieving asylum manifest, and how governments can better protect children.