There are more than 10 million stateless people in the world. This includes those who have no formal status and others unable to exercise their rights or prove their nationality. Until recently, this topic had been ignored by all but a handful of legal experts and social scientists who referred back to Hannah Arendt’s writings on the origins of Nazism and Stalinism, specifically European problems from more than 60 years ago. While statelessness relates to the idea of cultural security, the linkages between nationality status and cultural security have not been made explicit. This chapter seeks to address that omission. It identifies linkages in the requirements to protect human rights and cultural rights under international law, and describes how the discourse on human security brings them together, before reviewing the relevant literature. It concludes by presenting some illustrations to make the case to treat nationality as a cornerstone of cultural security.