On 22 July 2011, Anders Breivik murdered 77 people. This chapter will attempt to address the question of whether Breivik was mentally ill at this time, and if not, what motivated him to commit these crimes. In common with jihadi extremists, Breivik believed strongly that his actions were an appropriate response to an intolerable situation, and that his intentions were to protect what he perceived to be the values of civilization. In his case, this means the values of Western civilization, under threat from Islamization, immigration, and the failure of the West to stand up for its culture and values. Breivik’s views are not that uncommon, so what was it that compelled him to move from belief to action in such an extreme manner, and one that subsequently came to influence an evolving pattern of white, right-wing extremist attacks, like the one perpetrated in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 2019?