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Brian J. Cook

Bureaucracy and democracy, seemingly antithetical ideas about governance, are inseparably intertwined in the development of the modern, and now postmodern, democratic state. Three classic accounts_from de Tocqueville, Weber, and Friedrich_offer wide-ranging insights into this complex relationship, revealing just how much bureaucracy and democracy have transformed one another. Despite the individualistic dimension within the democratic creed, organizations are the key to understanding the bureaucracy–democracy relationship and improving its prospects for a harmonious future.

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Brian J. Cook

The U.S. EPA is one of the primary institutions responsible for the design and implementation of national environmental policy. Through the lens of public organizations as open systems, this chapter examines EPA’s history, development, and current status, the turbulent political and economic setting in which it operates, and how it has responded. The EPA has struggled to contend with the effects of a programmatically fragmented rather than integrated internal structure, as well as multiple and conflicting political principals and a similar lack of integration in its broad and significant regulatory authority. Nevertheless, the agency has been one of the prime architects of significant national improvements in public health and environmental quality over the past 50 years. New, theoretically well grounded research on the EPA’s internal operations and leadership and its role in the national network of environmental governance are critical for understanding its prospects as it enters its second half century.