Vicki Smith and Brian Halpin
The size of the non-standard workforce in industrialised countries has grown over the last four decades, as has social science research on this category of employment. This chapter first reviews the genealogy of the concept and explains the growth of the category. It then reviews research that has analysed non-standard employment, looking at specific practices and non-standard work in different sectors of the labour market. It concludes by reviewing policies that have been adopted in some countries to rectify the more deleterious aspects of non-standard work and suggests that such policies should be more widely adopted around the globe.
Joel B. Smith, Jeffrey K. Lazo and Brian Hurd
Brian D. Israel, Jean Martin, Kelly Smith Fayne and Lauren Daniel
Despite myriad methodological shortcomings, some economists continue to advocate for the use of contingent valuation (CV) and other survey methods to estimate non-use values of natural resources. Federal regulatory agencies also continue to explore these methodologies, although both the OPA and CERCLA regulations strongly disfavor their application, and no court has actually relied upon a CV or a similar study to determine the value of natural resource damages. Indeed, several courts have refused to admit CV studies into evidence, ruling that the studies were not an accurate or reliable measure of actual loss. The better and more reliable approach for valuing natural resource loss, from both a legal and policy perspective, is based on the cost of projects needed to repair, replace, or return injured natural resources to baseline conditions where practicable, and compensate for the temporary or interim loss of resources until restoration is complete.