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Bridget Anderson

This chapter examines the relationship between citizenship and justice, understanding citizenship as a political concept and a socio-legal status. It explores how thinking about justice has been hobbled by methodological nationalism and relates this to debates in migration studies about the nature of citizenship. The chapter suggests how to take a methodologically de-nationalist approach to justice through ETHOS research on Roma people, justice as representation and justice and social assistance. The case of the Roma people is a way of bringing debates about hierarchies of ‘migration’ into conversation with hierarchies of citizenship, the nation state form, ideas of ‘race’ and sedentarist assumptions. The issue of social assistance is used to examine firstly how mobility is subject to control and restriction through welfare state policy, and how claimants experience disrespect. The chapter concludes by arguing that citizenship and restrictions on mobility are implicated in racialisation, misrepresentation and maldistribution.

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Bridget Anderson, Ben Rogaly and Martin Ruhs

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Bridget Anderson, Vedrana Baričević, Isabel Shutes and Sarah Walker

This chapter addresses the shifting boundaries and barriers between Insiders and Outsiders and the consequences for citizenship. It examines the possibilities for escaping from a logic that presents Insiders (citizens) and Outsiders (migrants) as competitors for the privileges of membership in the state of residence. EU citizen status is taken as a lens, which reveals shared practical interests and offers new conceptual insights. The chapter outlines how citizenship, and relatedly the foreigner/migrant, is understood, its relationship to deservingness, and the community of value. It examines naturalisation – how migrants are made into citizens – as exemplifying the normative ways in which the boundary between the Insider and the Outsider is porous and can also be ethnic. Citizenship has an instrumental and normative value, highlighted by EU citizenship exposing the ways in which national EU citizens are an important form of social capital. Attempts to harden Insider/Outsider boundaries are discussed, such as investor citizenship programmes and membership of a diaspora. The chapter also examines the ways in which Insiders can become Outsiders, considering the valuing of the worker-citizen that creates boundaries within the legal citizenship status, and suggests that what is bad for non-citizens/migrants is not necessarily good for citizens.