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C. Michael Hall

Department of Management, Marketing and Entrepreneurship, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand; Department of Geography, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Kalmar, Sweden; School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa Biosecurity is the protection of a location’s or firm’s economic, environmental and/or human health from the introduction, emergence, establishment and spread of harmful organisms. Although continued growth in human, animal and trade mobilities has been recognised as an extremely significant feature in the movement of infectious diseases, the role and nature of medical tourism has arguably not been so well understood. As a form of tourism that, by its very nature, has broader health implications medical tourism provides distinct biosecurity challenges. The chapter examines one of the emerging major challenges for cross-border medical tourism, namely the coming together of several trends: the growth of international mobility, and medical tourism in particular; the emergence of antibiotic resistance; and environmental change. It suggests that shifts towards neoliberal models of public health provision will only intensify the biosecurity risks that will arise from increased medical tourism related mobility, and that these, in turn, will be affected by growing antibiotic resistance and climate change.

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C. Michael Hall

Tourism geographies cannot be divorced from the institutional environments within which they are set. While individual agency is clearly important, the academic acceptability of approaches, turns, frames and paradigms is externally determined. This chapter argues that the search for a research agenda is reflective of academic structures and practices, writ fine in tourism geographies. This is not to suggest that they do not have value; rather it is to note that such institutional agendas and turns cannot be separated from interests and may have little empirical linkage to issues of relevance, ethics and public contribution. Any research agenda is therefore emergent and of its time. However, the chapter concludes that any lasting contribution needs to move beyond self-serving opportunism and focus on geography’s synthetic research capacities and engagement.

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C. Michael Hall

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C. Michael Hall

The concept of content analysis has evolved over time, and the approach can be used as a research tool in its own right or in combination with other methods. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis are complementary approaches that are increasingly integrated in software based in big data analysis. Content analysis also provides the basis for systematic reviews and meta-analysis.

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C. Michael Hall

Fieldwork for tourism research is discussed in the context of the relationship between travel and undertaking fieldwork and their different stages. Seven different types of interrelated spaces of fieldwork are identified: temporal space, physical space, regulatory/political space, ethical space, social space and theoretical/methodological space.

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C. Michael Hall and Tim Baird