The chapter dwells on the hegemonic conservation agenda that attempts to dominate decision-making on how natural resources, especially forests, should be managed. It looks at the conflicts this generates and its underlying nature and intent. The chapter traces the history of forest governance, from colonization of the forest to the struggle for democratization with reference to the Indian experience, and its impact, both on conservation and livelihoods. The narrative ends with the frame of governance that seeks to resolve the conservation versus livelihood construct and its replacement with the paradigm of convergence of conservation with livelihood. The obstacles and challenges in this paradigmatic shift are also part of this narrative as they emerge from the Indian experience.