Biotechnology represents the industrial use of biological organisms and processes to manufacture medical, agricultural and consumer products (Oakey et al. 1990). Biotechnology applications include, among others, bulk and specialty chemicals, healthcare, food and drink products, waste or pollution treatment, and agriculture (Sager 2001). Based on these descriptions, we can characterize biotechnology entrepreneurship as the motivation, skills and actions required to successfully identify and exploit market opportunities regarding the use, manufacturing and consumption of products and services derived from the use of biological organisms and processes. To understand the specificities of entrepreneurship in biotechnology, we discuss in the following sections, the various paths of biotechnology entrepreneurship, the opportunities and challenges of biotechnology entrepreneurship, and finally, the relationship between entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship in this specific sector.
Amela Karahasanović, Linda D. Hollebeek, Dimitra Chasanidou and Calin Gurau
The importance of customer engagement’s (CE) temporal dimension has been acknowledged by both academics and practitioners. CE’s temporal dimension examines the concept’s evolution or lifecycle, which can vary across contexts (e.g. firms, brands). However, despite the growing recognition of CE’s temporality, the effect of its temporal evolution on the service innovation process remains nebulous. In response to this gap, this chapter proposes a service-dominant (S-D) logic-informed model for integrating CE’s temporal evolution in the service innovation process. We commence reviewing key literature in these areas, followed by the development of the framework. Our analyses are supplemented by relevant examples to illustrate the framework’s component concepts and theoretical linkages. Based on our analyses, we identify key gaps that merit further research and deduce important areas of strategic insight for managers. In particular, we suggest the importance of investigating how to optimize SI with respect to CE's temporal dimension. Further, we propose further research into the ways in which protocol transparency and visibility can be improved through customers' canonical and participant trajectories, which map users’ ex ante and actual SI-related perceptions.