Edited by Carlo Carraro
Carlo Carraro and Carmen Marchiori
Challenges and Opportunities
Carlo Carraro and Marinella Davide
The European Union (EU) has a consolidated climate and energy policy, which has played a pioneering role by adopting a wide range of emission reduction measures. However, it is often claimed that these measures have a negative effect on the economy, especially in terms of growth and competitiveness. This chapter reviews the recent literature on the European experience to understand if these concerns are true. The authors’ analysis primarily focuses on studies assessing major economic indicators, such as costs, competitiveness, carbon leakage and income distribution, with the objective of highlighting both the limits and the opportunities of the EU’s regulatory framework, as well as its potential for reconciliation with socio-economic objectives.