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Carlos Gomez-Gonzalez and Julio del Corral

Competitive balance in individual sports has not attracted as much attention as in other team settings. In terms of followers and media attention, tennis is definitely the most important individual sport. By following the methodology developed by Del Corral (2009), this chapter intends to analyse competitive balance in men’s and women’s low- and high-impact international tournaments. The data include 76 773 tennis matches (Association of Tennis Professionals 2000–2017 and Women’s Tennis Association 2007–2017) and display information on the type of surface, tournament, results, and players’ characteristics and performance. The analysis uses the percentage of players that reach the expected round and a modification based on quality to measure competitive balance. The chapter shows how the evolution of competitive balance differs in men’s and women’s tournaments; U-shaped versus sustained increased, respectively. The results also reveal variation owing to the type of surface and the importance of tournaments, which is consistent in both settings.

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Carlos A. Carrasco, Jesús Ferreiro, Catalina Gálvez, Carmen Gomez and Ana González

Although the Great Recession is a global phenomenon, with roots outside the European Union (EU), its impact has been deeper and longer lasting in the EU than elsewhere. However, the impact of the Great Recession has not been the same in all the European countries. The objective of this chapter is to analyse the different effects of the economic and financial crisis among the European Union member states, focusing on the behaviour of a number of real and financial variables since the year 2003 to evaluate the impact of the crisis. Thus, we will analyse the performance of 17 economic variables grouped into seven categories: economic activity, labour market, income distribution, inflation, balance of payments, public finances, and financial balance sheets of total economy and sectors.