This chapter integrates personality psychology with the empirical investigation of economic preferences and choice. We begin with a classic question in psychology: when and how can we identify behavior as emanating from stable personality differences, from situational pressures, or some combination? Next, we review the psychometric methods used in personality psychology, with an emphasis on personality variables captured in the Big Five theory of personality and the biobehavioral approach/avoidance system that have been robustly shown to systematically influence economic decision making. We finally examine how the methodology of personality psychology can be applied in the realm of economic preferences and its measurement.
Carsten K.W. De Dreu and Jörg Gross
Bernard A. Nijstad, Eric F. Rietzschel, Matthijs Baas and Carsten K.W. De Dreu
Some theories of creativity emphasize that creative ideas result from random processes and benefit from states of reduced cognitive control (e.g., mind-wandering, distraction, and defocused attention), whereas other theories emphasize systematic search processes and the deployment of cognitive effort. The dual pathway to creativity model (DPCM) integrates these views and posits that two qualitatively different processes, flexibility and persistence, may both lead to creative ideas. The DPCM also states that different traits and (psychological) states can influence creativity through these different pathways, and that their effectiveness may depend on situational opportunities and constraints. This conceptualization has important implications for how to stimulate creativity at work, and suggests a number of new and testable hypotheses.