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Cecilia Jacob

This chapter examines the development of international laws and norms for the protection of civilians in contexts of military intervention. It situates these developments in both historical context and the challenges that emerge in contemporary armed conflicts. The chapter introduces the two key international frameworks for protecting civilians affected by violent conflict and mass atrocities, including by force. These are Protection of Civilians (PoC) in the context of peacekeeping, and the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) that guides international responses to situations of mass atrocity.