Cees Mulder and Marcus Müller
Appeal proceedings before the boards of appeal form the last step in the grant and opposition proceedings before the European Patent Office. If a European patent application is refused by an examining division or if the outcome of opposition proceedings is not to the liking of one of the parties, they can lodge an appeal. The main function of appeal proceedings is to give a judicial review of the first instance decision taken by the examining or opposition division. In this chapter the case law of the boards of appeal of the European Patent Office on procedural aspects of appeal proceedings is discussed.