Intergenerational Solidarity in European Welfare States
Edited by Chiara Saraceno
The Southern European welfare regimes had started to differentiate themselves just at the time, the 1990s, when the existence of this particular kind of regime, or family of nations, was being acknowledged in the literature and being studied, even considering it as a possible model of developmental path for the South Eastern European countries then emerging from communist regimes. The ‘recalibration process’ initiated under the multiple external and internal pressures of the Maastricht Treaty, globalization, post- industrialism, changing gender arrangements and women’s demands, demographic change and so forth, pushed in partly similar and partly different directions and with varying intensity and timing, but also different starting points as well as economic dynamics. At the onset of the crisis, therefore, the four countries were in the process of changing their welfare regimes in different directions, thus suggesting the likelihood that the ‘Southern European welfare regime’ as such would disarticulate, with each country following different logics, or political etiquettes. In particular, Portugal and especially Spain showed a greater dynamism than Italy and Greece. The economic crisis, which was particularly severe and longer lasting in these four countries, while exposing the weakness and unbalances of the welfare arrangements in the four countries, strengthened the ‘retrenching’ over the ‘catching up’ dimension of the recalibrating process, although, again, to a different degree in each country, with Greece and Spain at the opposite ends.