This chapter distinguishes two anthropological sources of human action and normativity: whilst the ‘classical’ paradigm claimed teleological, value-centred visions of the human, the ‘modern’ anthropological paradigm finds support in evolutionary theory and the naturalism of Scientific Darwinism. The authors argue that evolutionary theory is not bound to an evolutionary outlook but can actually integrate elements of normativity typical of the classical paradigm. Although evolutionary theory lacks sources of normativity, it is nevertheless compatible with a teleological interpretation of the biosphere and humans. If our evolved cognitive abilities – as claimed by the modern paradigm – allow us freedom to choose, one potentiality is to choose the classical paradigm as a normative ideal. Our evolved nature can help us see that our potentialities can be realized in a good way and that the classical paradigm is a suitable alternative to deal with the problems of the modern world that we face as individuals and as societies.