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Christian Reimann

In this chapter, Christian Reimann analyses the development of atypical employment relationships and their individual and national determinants from 2002 to 2013 on the basis of the European Labour Force Survey. Labour market reforms increased temporary employment rates in Europe since the 1970s. This development led to a dualization between permanently employed insiders and temporarily employed outsiders. However, national institutions as well as economic and labour market structures remain very different. The thesis of this chapter is that the insider-outsider divide increasingly depends on individual characteristics such as gender, age and educational attainment, while national particularities lose their importance for determining the risk of being temporarily employed. It can be shown that national institutions and structures have lost their explanatory power in particular in the years before the crisis. This de-territorialization of social inequalities can be interpreted as an indicator of Europeanization processes affecting the labour market segmentation. With the onset of the crisis in 2008/2009, however, the situation changed. National institutional factors such as employment protection, the unemployment rate or economic growth influence the risk of temporary employment once again – an indicator for the renationalization of employment policies.