This chapter describes how the protection and preservation of the natural environment, integrity of ecological systems, and the survival of species are positive conditions for peace and human security. Given the interdependent and complex nature of the global environment, no state alone can effectively protect it. Rather, global cooperative efforts to reach significant concessions on states’ sovereignty to exploit their natural resources are necessary in order to halt, reverse, and prevent environmental degradation. At the same time, environmental protection in order to be a foundation for peace should be aligned with eco-sensitive development needs as aptly expressed in the principle of sustainable development. This chapter gives an overview over the inter-linkages between environmental protection, sustainable development, and peace. It looks at the tools and means of international environmental law in this context and highlights the importance of multilateralism and global cooperation to address these issues. It further looks at the particular example of climate change and the multilateral efforts under the UN to establish a collaborative climate effort—based on global equity and sustainable development.
Edited by Christina Voigt
The REDD+ initiative for Reducing Emissions of greenhouse gases from Deforestation and Forest Degradation is an important tool, established under the UNFCCC, for incentivizing developing countries to adopt and scale up climate mitigation actions in the forest sector and for capturing and channeling the financial resources to do so. With contributions from legal experts, international relations scholars, climate change negotiators and activists, this Handbook eloquently examines the emerging governance arrangements for REDD+, analysing how and to what extent it is embedded in the international legal framework.
Abstract Climate change raises complex legal questions of states’ rights and duties, both in the context of addressing climate change through mitigation action and when dealing with the effects of climate change through effective adaptation measures as well as climate change damages. In all these contexts, international law matters. While a multilateral solution to these questions has been negotiated in the context of the 2015 Paris Agreement, 1 there is the possibility that states may want to resort to adjudicative means as a way to respond to challenges of collective or national concern. It might be only a question of time before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) will be called upon in the context of one of the many legal issues related to climate change. This chapter attempts to map and analyse substantive legal issues that potentially could be subject to disputes brought before the ICJ or legal questions 2 addressed by an advisory opinion issued by the Court.