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  • Author or Editor: Christopher McGrory Klyza x
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Christopher McGrory Klyza

This chapter employs historical institutionalism as an overarching theoretical framework to examine the changing nature and current tools of U.S. presidential policymaking in the environmental realm. The chapter is organized to provide: firstly, a theoretical framework, focusing on secular time and the policy state; secondly, a brief overview of presidential history, with a focus on Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin D. Roosevelt as the foremost policymakers before the rise of the environment as a major policy arena in the 1960s; thirdly, a discussion of changes in “secular time” that affected the president’s policymaking power, especially the rise of the administrative presidency and legislative gridlock; fourthly, an examination of the major presidential policymaking tools and their significance, especially executive orders and rulemaking; and finally, concluding thoughts, focusing on the increasing significance of presidential policymaking and its contingency in a time of gridlock.