In the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 attacks the European Union overtook the Council of Europe at the forefront of Europe-wide co-operation on counter-terrorism. Today EU law shapes national law against terrorism in a range of fields, including telecommunications, financial, and travel surveillance. The response to terrorism has also led to procedural co-operation on extradition and evidence exchange. The case-law of the EU Court of Justice has influenced global efforts against Al-Qaeda and Islamic State. This chapter offers a critical overview of EU and Council of Europe law in the field – including the Directive on Combating Terrorism and the Passenger Name Record (PNR) Directive – and their implications for human rights and the rule of law.