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Philip Kelly and Cindy Maharaj

As the children of diverse flows of immigrants have come of age in countries such as the United States and Canada, questions are increasingly being asked about their socio-economic outcomes. Sociological approaches have dominated this discussion. Although many have integrated some implicitly geographical concepts, there is room for geographers to bring a more fulsome appreciation of spatiality to the discussion. This chapter proposes that three specific spatialities are essential in understanding next generation outcomes. The first is place – referring to the role of schools, neighborhoods and distinctive urban settings in shaping the opportunities available to youth in immigrant families. The second is territory – whereby border regimes define the legal right to residency, enforce family separation and determine the possibility of working in privileged segments of the labor market. The third spatiality is transnationalism, recognizing both the spatially unbounded lives that some migrants live and the historical and contemporary colonialisms that frame minority racialized identities in white-dominant societies.