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Claire Higgins

This chapter describes in-country programs for people in refugee-like situations who have not yet fled across an international border, whereby they are first processed in their countries of origin before being settled abroad. These programs have been historically deployed by the governments of the US, Canada, and Australia, and seek to ensure asylum seekers avoid a dangerous journey over land or sea. The orderly nature of this mechanism should not be used to avoid responsibility but instead to shore up the integrity of the international protection regime. The chapter is based on preliminary historical research into in-country programs operated by Australia and Canada, combined with existing literature on U.S programs; it considers variance in eligibility criteria, the safety of those involved with procedure, and the role of the country of origin in permitting safe exit.