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Clara Portela

fter the introduction of targeted sanctions a few decades ago, the sanctions landscape is now characterized by the spread of horizontal sanctions regimes, which focus on specific types of violations and allow for the listing of individuals and entities irrespective of their location or national affiliation. The chapter argues, firstly, that this practice is being transferred from the US to its close allies; secondly, that horizontal sanctions faithfully give expression to the notion of targeted sanctions, representing the culmination of a trend towards individualization. Thirdly, a case study on the EU’s adoption of a sanctions regime illustrates that the diffusion of horizontal sanctions often responds to pragmatic considerations as it allows it to react to breaches in politically sensitive contexts without blaming third states. It also discusses some open questions, such as horizontal sanctions’ relationship to international criminal justice, de-listing criteria or their controversial record of effectiveness.