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Claudio M. Radaelli

In this chapter Claudio Radaelli critically appraises the literature on Europeanization, reviewing a large number of empirical studies and their research design. The chapter discusses concept formation, the role of EU pressure and the agency of actors in processes of Europeanization, and the relationship between this field of research and interpretivism. Finally, the chapter looks at the future of research Europeanization in a context characterized by multiple crises and perhaps Europeanization in reverse.

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Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

One proposition put forward in this volume is that there is a relationship between policy instruments and mechanisms. To find out how exactly this relationship works, its activators and the causal role of policy instruments, the authors zoom in on the case of impact assessment (IA) in the European Union. IA is an evidence-based instrument adopted by the EU in the context of the evidence-based better regulation strategy. The connection between IA and learning is apparently intuitive: IA should bring evidence to bear on the process of selecting policy options, and therefore assist decision-makers in learning from different type of analysis, dialogue with experts and stakeholders, and open consultation. However, we find out that learning comes in different modes (epistemic, reflexive, bargaining and hierarchical) and that the activators, context and results of learning vary across modes. In the conclusions, we reflect on the connections between learning and politics revealed by our approach to policy instruments and varieties of learning.

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Fabrizio De Francesco and Claudio M. Radaelli

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Edited by Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

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Edited by Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

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Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

This Edward Elgar Handbook of Regulatory Impact Assessment aims to provide a balanced account of what it is to design, make and implement impact assessment (IA) across a range of major policy sectors, countries and regions. In the volume, a field of international academic and practitioner experts guide us through the state of the art of IA in five parts: (1) the analytical approaches that underpin IA; (2) the pre-eminent tools, actors and dimensions; (3) major policy sectors where IA is featured; (4) the regional diffusion of IA; and (5) its implementation analytically, pedagogically and in the field. This introduction fulfils the function of a scene-setting chapter. The authors do not offer a systematic account of IA (assuming that is possible), nor is it a summary of the chapters that follow. Rather, they define what IA is and report on research on impact assessment informed by two disciplines, political science and economics. Specifically, they consider four domains: the theoretical justification of impact assessment, its diffusion across time and jurisdictions, the economic effects and the ways in which governments use this tool. In the conclusions section they reflect on the variability of form and substance.

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Edited by Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

This comparative Handbook provides a pioneering and comprehensive account of regulatory impact assessment – the main instrument used by governments and regulators to appraise the likely effects of their policy proposals. Renowned international scholars and practitioners describe the substance of impact assessment, situating it in its proper theoretical traditions and scrutinizing its usage across countries, policy sectors, and policy instruments. The Handbook of Regulatory Impact Assessment will undoubtedly be of great value to practitioners and also scholars with its wealth of detail and lessons to be learned.
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Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

Does regulation cause corruption? In a field dominated by economics, the public administration literature has opened the peripheral view of social scientists by bringing evidence to bear on three different claims: that regulation causes corruption but under certain conditions; that it is the quality of regulation to hinder corruption; and, that anti-corruption regulation can aggravate the problem of corruption. After having reviewed and discussed the claims, we turn to recent advances in the literature and make suggestions for future research. We make the case for drawing more attention to regulatory policy instruments and point to the crucial stage of rule-making. Next, we introduce novel ways to model causality and identify how regulation may explain corruption, contrasting the statistical worldview with set-theoretic explanations. Finally, we critically discuss the state of play with measures of corruption and how to improve.

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Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

Policy learning is an attractive proposition, but who learns and for what purposes? Can we learn the wrong lesson? And why do so many attempts to learn what works often fail? In this article, we provide three lessons. First, there are four different modes in which constellations of actors learn. Hence our propositions about learning are conditional on which of the four contexts we refer to. Second, policy learning does not just happen; there are specific hindrances and triggers. Thus, learning can be facilitated by knowing the mechanisms to activate and the likely obstacles. Third, learning itself is a conditional final aim: although the official aspiration of public organizations and politicians is to improve on public policy, policy learning can also be dysfunctional – for an organization, a policy, a constellation of actors or even democracy.

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Claire A. Dunlop and Claudio M. Radaelli

Policy research has generated profound insights on the policy process. However, the granularity of the policy sciences makes it difficult to integrate policy analysis into the ‘big questions’ facing the vision of the open society, such as democratic backsliding, corruption, the polarization of electorates, the de-legitimization of expertise, and the fault-lines between governments and citizens. By integrating different dimensions, from public health to the economy and human rights, the COVID-19 pandemic has urged our discipline to identify novel responses and new approaches to tackle the big questions. The future of the policy sciences must find an anchor in a reflection on our roles as researchers, questioning our vision, tasks, and role in society: what is a policy scholar for? This is for us, reflective scholars, the truly big question behind all the other ‘big questions’ that open societies face today. We outline the coordinates of a possible answer by looking closely at five key verbs that define the role of the policy scholar: learning, analysing, advising, empowering and reflecting. In the conclusions, we discuss the ways in which enabling these actions can expand our public policy imagination and professional relevance.