Clemente Ruiz Durán
This chapter argues that industrial policy in these times of deep structural changes has to become sustainable, in the sense of contributing to the resolution of global societal challenges. These “megatrends” are in fact linked to the ongoing deep transformations and have to be taken into account in a comprehensive vision in order for socio-economic development to become sustainable. The sustainability is here intended as both socio-political (guaranteeing rights of people: namely, access to a decent life, to education, and so on) and environmental. For this purpose, important institutional changes will be required.
Patrizio Bianchi, Sandrine Labory and Clemente Ruiz Durán
The beginning of the twenty-first century is turning out to be full of disruptions and challenges for economies and societies. Climate change, world population growth, migratory pressures, are pressing challenges; the financial crisis has had a dramatic effect and many economies have had difficulties in recovering their pre-crisis development level. Meanwhile, innovation and technological changes are accelerating, in various fields including genomics, nanotechnologies, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and big data, robotics and artificial intelligence, new materials, and others. ICTs, with the Internet of Things (IoT), the Cloud, big data, are allowing hyper-connection of people and objects and digitisation of production processes. The change induced is so disruptive that there is quite wide consensus that we are experiencing an industrial revolution, the fourth one. New means of production and new products are appearing and will continue doing so, changing individuals’ life in important aspects, namely economic, social and cultural.