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Clemente Ruiz Durán

This chapter argues that industrial policy in these times of deep structural changes has to become sustainable, in the sense of contributing to the resolution of global societal challenges. These “megatrends” are in fact linked to the ongoing deep transformations and have to be taken into account in a comprehensive vision in order for socio-economic development to become sustainable. The sustainability is here intended as both socio-political (guaranteeing rights of people: namely, access to a decent life, to education, and so on) and environmental. For this purpose, important institutional changes will be required.

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Clemente Ruiz Durán

We close this book with three chapters on aspects of cities and regions in Mexico. Ruiz focuses on two major industries – automobile and pharmaceuticals, and two minor industries – pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and shows how the development of interaction in global production networks (CGV) has increased interaction between regions and cities and has led to positive complementarities with activity in nearby towns. Automotive production is concentrated along the US border and down the center of Mexico to Puebla. Electronics is located in Baja California and Chihuahua in the north and then in the center, principally in Jalisco, and the south of Mexico. Pharmaceuticals and medical devices are far less developed and are concentrated in the areas around Mexico City, to the east in Jalisco and along the US border. The challenge for smaller cities and regions is to insert themselves into CGVs in these industries and to develop growth in interactions among the larger cities.

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Patrizio Bianchi, Sandrine Labory and Clemente Ruiz Durán

The beginning of the twenty-first century is turning out to be full of disruptions and challenges for economies and societies. Climate change, world population growth, migratory pressures, are pressing challenges; the financial crisis has had a dramatic effect and many economies have had difficulties in recovering their pre-crisis development level. Meanwhile, innovation and technological changes are accelerating, in various fields including genomics, nanotechnologies, information and communication technologies (ICTs) and big data, robotics and artificial intelligence, new materials, and others. ICTs, with the Internet of Things (IoT), the Cloud, big data, are allowing hyper-connection of people and objects and digitisation of production processes. The change induced is so disruptive that there is quite wide consensus that we are experiencing an industrial revolution, the fourth one. New means of production and new products are appearing and will continue doing so, changing individuals’ life in important aspects, namely economic, social and cultural.