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Cleo Calimbahin

This chapter documents corruption in the Philippines. Centuries of Spanish and American colonialism led to the formation of a weak state rife with systemic corruption. The long dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos was a case study in kleptocracy. Clan-based oligarchs use a clientelistic power structure and crony capitalism that offer impunity to corrupt officials and led to an unholy marriage with organized crime. Corrupt elites and dynastic ruling families engage in widespread election fraud. More recently, Filipino corruption has taken a horrifically violent turn: President Duterte’s campaign against illegal drugs has led to the deaths of more than 7,000 people, many murdered extra-judicially.