In this chapter, it is shown how multiple age groups are involved in different forms of gentrification. It is argued that it is necessary to consider age, life course, and generation in order to understand the increasingly widespread scale at which gentrification and displacement operate. The chapter zooms in on three different age groups in broader gentrification processes: (1) young people, (2) families, and (3) ageing groups. It specifically focuses on the crucial role of life-course transitions, and the cumulative experiences and residential trajectories of particular generations. It also considers the political economy of life course and shows how as gentrification has become mainstream it becomes an ever more likely outcome of the negotiation of various life-course transitions. Developers recognise this and jump on those niche markets for profitable speculative housing development, and lure those households deemed desirable.
Cody Hochstenbach and Willem Boterman
Wouter van Gent and Cody Hochstenbach
Socio-spatial inequalities are related to changes in urban housing markets, often described and debated in terms of gentrification. While related, gentrification and segregation are conceptually different. This chapter provides a conceptual overview of how the two spatial processes are related. Additionally, we will gauge how and to what degree gentrification processes at the neighbourhood level, defined as changes in housing value, contribute to changes in social-economic and ethnic segregation in five Dutch cities (2004–2016). Our findings indicate that housing value increases in low-status neighbourhoods and value stagnation in high-status areas may lower social-economic segregation, but this is outweighed by the increasing deprivation in low-status neighbourhoods and increasing incomes in high-status areas. Also, new housing developments exacerbate segregation levels. For ethnicity, segregation levels are decreasing (except in Den Haag), yet here new housing developments also contribute to segregation. We conclude with a reflection on the multifaceted relationship.
Rik Damhuis, Wouter van Gent, Cody Hochstenbach and Sako Musterd
Key life-course transitions often instigate, or even require, at least one residential move. Leaving the parental home, coupling or separating are clear examples. Life-course transitions therefore also have clear and inherent spatial dimensions, but the question how life course plays out at small spatial scales is rarely studied in a structured way. Instead, we often have to make-do with crude generalizations such as seemingly stable urban–suburban dichotomies. In this chapter, we challenge this perspective by providing a new framework to analyze contemporary changes in the regional dynamics of life course. Housing plays a key role in this: housing market conditions structure the degree to which individuals are able to make transitions. Contemporary housing transformations, taking place in most Western countries, have an unequal impact on different generations. In many successful cities housing affordability and accessibility are decreasing. This leaves a mark on life-course trajectories, as the trade-offs involved in making certain transitions become sharper – in terms of housing and space. Housing transformations therefore contribute to a changing geography of life course within urban regions. We illustrate our arguments through a case study of life-course dynamics in the Amsterdam metropolitan region in the wake of the 2008 Global Financial Crisis.