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Rachida Justo, Cristina Cruz and Julio O. De Castro

The chapter utilizes social identity theory to examine differences in subjective perceptions of success (intrinsic and independence) of male and female entrepreneurs. The results indicate that while both entrepreneurs with dependents place higher value on intrinsic dimensions of success than entrepreneurs without, the effects are stronger for women and moderated by venture stage. Alternatively, the independence dimension of success operates differently and glass ceiling effects make it more important for women entrepreneurs and stronger in nascent businesses. Thus, sex per se does not account for differences in perception of success; rather, those differences are prompted by gendered expectations of work and family.

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Alicia Coduras, Cristina Cruz, Ignacio de la Vega and Rachida Justo