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Daniel Silander

The political entrepreneur is to be found in the public sector. However, the public entrepreneur not only acts in relation to other public actors, but also in relation to the business sector with entrepreneurs. To discuss and understand who is the political entrepreneur is therefore to explore the relationships and networks between the public sector and the business sector, the entrepreneurs involved and how the political entrepreneur must act to promote favourable conditions for entrepreneurs. In times of global economic competition, economic recession and transformation of the urban and rural economic landscapes, it is important from local and regional perspectives to have political entrepreneurs that seek new opportunities for growth. This is done by changing traditional norms and values of who the entrepreneur might be and how entrepreneurship is to be conducted. It is about identifying windows of opportunities and exploring new formal and informal favourable conditions for existing and potential entrepreneurs.

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Daniel Silander

This study has explored one major challenge to European integration, the EU and member-states in how European governance and political entrepreneurship have handled the European economic crisis of 2007/2008 and forward. Chapter 1 addresses the economic crisis as being the worst crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Despite European efforts to protect European economies from the global crisis, it hit hard economically, politically and socially. In 2009, the European Commission called for coordinated European efforts to not only combat the ongoing recession, but to build a better Europe. Europe saw great need for European governance and political entrepreneurship to handle the economic, political and social challenges that came with the economic crisis. This study set out to explore how European politicians, public servants, bureaucrats and institutions acted to promote economic growth and entrepreneurship in Europe.

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Daniel Silander

This study focuses on European political entrepreneurship in the Europe 2020 strategy. The aim of the study is to analyse the Europe 2020 strategy and the role of European political entrepreneurship in debating, shaping and implementing the strategy within the EU’s political levels of governance. In 2010, the European Commission released an official communication titled ‘Europe 2020: A strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth’. It succeeded the European Single Market programme (1986–92) and the Lisbon Strategy (2000–10). In the new Europe 2020 Strategy, the Commission called upon EU institutions, member states, regional and local authorities and the private sector to address the economic crisis by promoting smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. It referred to smart growth as promoting an economy based on knowledge and innovation, sustainable growth as economic growth based on resource efficiency and a greener economy and inclusive growth as growth that provides for social integration. The Commission further argued that fundamental measures, beyond day-to-day and regular political and economic activities, had to be implemented by engaged European actors seeking new economic and social models and presenting the state of the world, on all political levels of European governance.

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Daniel Silander

The Europe 2020 Strategy was a communication from the Commission pointing out the grave danger of an economic recession in Europe. It also served as a roadmap for a prosperous Europe in the future based on smart, sustainable and socially inclusive growth. The economic recession had challenged years of economic and social developments, and Europe 2020 addressed how it was time for European actors to set out countermeasures as one coherent European Union (EU). This chapter discusses the Europe 2020 Strategy implications of building a European social market economic model for the 21st century. The overall question is the following: What does a European social market economy model mean and what are the historical, political entrepreneurial visions behind such a model? It is argued that the European project has embedded an international, unique kind of European political entrepreneurship in which Europe has been founded on norms and values providing for a European liberal order of international collaboration, common institutions, democratic governance and a social market economy.

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Daniel Silander

On 12 September 2018, Jean-Claude Juncker, the President of the European Commission, presented the State of the Union 2018 to the European Parliament. He stressed his enthusiasm for economic progress in the EU within the context of the preceding global and European crisis. He also re-emphasized the importance of a unified Europe, both in dealing with internal growth and promoting social cohesion within the Single European Market (SEM), as well as in relation to growing global competition. Over the decades, shared European challenges and crises have resulted in common debates, negotiations, policies and laws providing for European integration. These challenges and crises have not always been easy to address, but the contemporary EU is a major symbol of European unity amidst diversity. This is not to say that a European crisis cannot result in distrust, disengagement and finally disintegration. There have been and will be serious structural and systematic hindrances in politics and economics, but European integration suggests that Europe’s development has embedded political entrepreneurship by treating crises as opportunities.

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Daniel Silander and Charlotte Silander

Using social science and economics perspectives, the goal of this study is to complement the dominant business administration research on entrepreneurship by increasing our knowledge about the economic-political context in which entrepreneurship and private enterprise are conducted. This book explores the role of political entrepreneurs for regional growth and entrepreneurial diversity in Sweden. We define a political entrepreneur as a politician/bureaucrat/officer/department within the publicly funded sector who with innovative approaches encourages entrepreneurship/business and where the goals are growth, employment and the common good. The approach of this book is to enrich the established research on entrepreneurship with in-depth knowledge of the conditions for entrepreneurship in Sweden. The main focus of study is the role that the political entrepreneur might play in promoting entrepreneurship, enterprise and entrepreneurial diversity in the Swedish economy.

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Daniel Silander and Charlotte Silander

This book has explored the role of political entrepreneurship in promoting growth, entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial diversity in Sweden. The different chapters have contributed to a greater understanding of one or more themes of the book: (1) political entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship; (2) political entrepreneurship and regional growth; and (3) political entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial diversity. Although several chapters referred to Nordic, European and European Union (EU) conditions, the analytical focus was on Sweden, with the book providing several case and comparative illustrations on Swedish political entrepreneurship in regional and local settings. By exploring political entrepreneurship in Sweden, we believe that this book has contributed to broader insights on favourable and unfavourable conditions for entrepreneurship that transcends Swedish borders.

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Daniel Silander and Charlotte Silander

This chapter focuses on the important role of the European Commission as a driving engine and agenda-setter for entrepreneurship. In line with previous research which has shown how crises can be opportunities for change, examples of how the Commission has acted as a political entrepreneur are presented. In a time of long-term economic crisis, the Commission has approached entrepreneurship and the promotion of entrepreneurial activities through different initiatives, such as the Small Business Act for Europe and the Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan. Entrepreneurship is viewed as necessary to create companies and job opportunities, to identify and enter new markets and to promote new know-how and skills. An important part of promoting entrepreneurship is introducing entrepreneurship into all areas of education. Education as a political concern is linked to EU policy in relation to its growth policy ambitions and is influenced by the economic motives underpinning entrepreneurship education. The economic crises of 2008 have served as a “window of opportunity” for making changes possible.

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Daniel Silander and Charlotte Silander

This chapter addresses the notions of European integration in terms of crises and challenges. If the 1990s and early 2000s were dominated by scholarly work on why more integration had developed, the last decade or so has consisted of an increasing number of studies on European recession, stagnation and disintegration. On 1 March 2017, the European Commission published its White Paper on the Future of Europe. This paper addressed European changes and challenges and set the agenda for the state leaders of the EU to meet and celebrate 60 years of unity since the Treaty of Rome in Italy. The European Commission stated how European challenges had historically been overcome based on shared norms and values, but also how the anniversary called upon Europe to handle new challenges. The Commission argued that Europe had historically faced many crossroads. On 13 September 2017, the president of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker, presented the annual State of the Union 2017, addressing the future objectives for Europe.

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Political Entrepreneurship

Regional Growth and Entrepreneurial Diversity in Sweden

Edited by Charlie Karlsson, Charlotte Silander and Daniel Silander

Political Entrepreneurship explores the role of political entrepreneurs in regional growth and entrepreneurial diversity. The authors define a political entrepreneur as a politician, bureaucrat or officer within the publicly funded sector who encourages entrepreneurship for growth and employment using innovative approaches. This book aims to enrich the established research on entrepreneurship with in-depth knowledge of the conditions conducive for political entrepreneurship in Sweden.